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N. Y. BROMLEY. Living Standards in the U.S.S.R. (1950 - 1965) The article describes the changes that have taken place in the living standard of the Soviet people in the past 15 years. It examines the level and structure of the popular consumption of foodstuffs and manufactured goods, the adjustment of wages and pensions to the benefit of different categories of the population, the improvement in housing conditions, the growth of real incomes, etc. The author analyzes the basic trends of the government policy in the field of raising national living standards, at the same time paying due attention to still existing shortcomings. The article illustrates the distribution of material benefits between diverse categories of the population in accordance with the amount of labour contributed to social production. E. S. MARKARYAN, The Basic Principles of Comparative Historical Research The article gives a general characteristic of the comparative method of historical research and stresses the incorrectness of its treatment merely as the sum-total of research methods, for it should be borne in mind that the comparative method of historical research organically embraces certain theoretical principles. Particular attention is devoted by the author to a close analysis of the comparative typological method, in which theoretical principles play an especially important part. "Horizontal" and "vertical" use of the comparative typological method is examined in connection with historical uniformity or diversity of phenomena under investigation. The "horizontal" comparison column summarizes structurally homogeneous; (parallel) objects, the "vertical" column-structurally heterogeneous ones, which determines the qualitative distinction between the cognitive tasks of these two types of comparative typological analysis. That is why the author attaches paramount importance to the establishment of scientific criteria with the help of which it will be possible to determi ... Читать далее

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